|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 192-195
Role of anemia in incidence and progression of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants
Department of Ophthalmology, KAPV Government Medical College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Web Publication||9-Mar-2018|
Dr. K R Vijayabharathi
KAPV Government Medical College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim of the study: This study aims to correlate the relationship of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with anemia in premature infants with regard to incidence and progression of ROP. Materials and Methods: All high-risk infants from our institution and neighboring districts as selected by neonatologist were screened at Special newborn care unit every Thursday on regular basis, and this study includes infants screened at ROP clinic during January 2017–March 2017. Conclusion: In our study at ROP clinic, high-risk premature infants who were screened showed a significant prevalence of ROP in babies weighing <2.000 kg and with female preponderance. The role of anemia and other neonatal risk factors needs to be evaluated further in our ongoing study.
Keywords: Anemia, high-risk premature infants, progression, retinopathy of prematurity
|How to cite this article:|
Vijayabharathi K R. Role of anemia in incidence and progression of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. TNOA J Ophthalmic Sci Res 2017;55:192-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Vijayabharathi K R. Role of anemia in incidence and progression of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. TNOA J Ophthalmic Sci Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Apr 20];55:192-5. Available from: http://www.tnoajosr.com/text.asp?2017/55/3/192/226869
| Introduction|| |
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease affecting the retina of premature infants. ROP is unique in that, this vascular disease is found only in infants with immature, incompletely vascularised retina, hence its connection with premature birth.
The mechanism of oxygen effects prints out that the initial changes in the developing vessels were believed to be an injury caused by higher concentration of oxygen supplementation in premature infants with inadequate respiratory effort and poor oxygen saturation (SPO2).,
Induced hyperoxia caused downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and death of endothelial cells, suggesting that VEGF is an endothelial survival factor. In the time that follows the closure of these growing vessels, the differentiating retina becomes increasingly ischemic and hypoxic, and VEGF is upregulated during the neovascularization.
In general prematurity, low birth weight and prolonged supplemental oxygen are established factors for the development of ROP.
Numerous other neonatal factors have been associated with ROP including cyanosis apnea, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage, seizures, septicemia, in utero hypoxia, anemia, and Vitamin E deficiency.,
Aim of the study
Hence, a study was conducted in ROP clinic to correlate the relationship of ROP with anemia in premature infants with regard to the incidence and progression of ROP.
| Materials and Methods|| |
All high-risk premature infants from our institute and neighboring districts as selected by the neonatologist were screened at ROP clinic on regular basis since 2015, and this study includes infants evaluated during January 2017–March 2017.
Indices included for this study are gestational age, chronological age, birth weight, gender, referral district, staging of ROP, and hemoglobin levels.
Infants were dilated with tropicamide every 15 min for three times, and the fundus examination was carried out at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
Using wire speculum after instillation of topical anesthetics, fundus examination was done using binocular indirect ophthalmoscope and with scleral indentation.
All details were recorded in the ROP chart [Table 1] and [Figure 1].
| Discussion|| |
A total of 72 infants were screened in our study. Most of the infants were found to be between 30 and 60 days of birth (40.5%) and below 30 days were of 36.1% [Table 2], [Table 3] and [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Affected vs normal premature infants in relation to birth weight|
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Affected group was more of female gender population [Table 4].
There was no marked difference in respondents between <28 weeks of gestational age and above 28 weeks [Table 5].
Most of affected infants were in 1–2 kg group (43.1%), i.e., 31 infants and 2.3 kg (30.6%), i.e. 22 infants [Table 6].
The hemoglobin level was not much variable in both normal and affected premature infants with statistical inference of 0.834>0.05. And was insignificant [Table 7] and [Table 8].
|Table 7: Statistical inference of retinopathy of prematurity in relation to high risk factors age at screening,gestational age,birth weight, hemoglobin level|
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|Table 8: Respondents in relation to age sex place of birth gestational age and birth weight,|
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| Conclusion|| |
In our study at ROP clinic, all 72 high-risk premature infants who were screened showed a higher prevalence of ROP in babies weighing <2 kg and with female preponderance. The role of anemia and other neonatal risk factors in ROP needs to be evaluated further in our ongoing study.,,,
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]